Chapter 1.

Chapter 2.

Chapter 3.

Chapter 4.

Chapter 5.

Chapter 6.

Chapter 7.

Chapter 8.

Chapter 9.

Chapter 10.

Chapter 11.


The Development of the Art Market in England:
Money as Muse, 1730–1900
Thomas M Bayer  and John R Page
Website Designer: Jessie Lingenfelter
J. E. Millais
*This is a work in progress; full citations are not available for some artworks. If you have information pertaining to any artwork please send us an email.
Black Brunswicker  1860
Oil on Canvas
41 x 27 in
Lady Lever Art Gallery, Port Sunlight

“Painter, watercolourist and illustrator. Came to London from Jersey with his parents in 1837. Entered Sass’s School in 1838; Royal Academy schools in 1840. Exhibited his first work at the RA in 1846 at the age of sixteen. Won several prizes, including the Gold Medal for historical painting in 1847. While at the RA schools formed a lasting friendship with Holman Hunt. Together with Hunt and D. G. Rossetti he founded the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood [PRB] in 1848-49. By far the most accomplished painter of the Brotherhood, he produced most of its memorable masterpieces. His work was reviled by critics, until Ruskin came to the rescue in 1851. In 1853 he was elected ARA, effectively dissolving the PRB. In the same year he went on an ill-fated trip to Scotland with John Ruskin and Effie, who he was to marry in 1855. About this time, he began to turn away from Pre-Raphaelite ideas, towards a more popular style. From then on he produced a succession of popular works which earned him greater success than any other English painter. He also became a fashionable society portrait painter, numbering Gladstone, Tennyson and Carlyle among his many famous sitters. By the 1880s his income was estimated at £30,000 a year. He also produced many fine illustrations for magazines such as Good Words, Once a Week, etc., and many books. Exhibited at the Royal Academy 1846-96, the British Institution, New Watercolour Society, Grosvenor Gallery, New Gallery and elsewhere. Elected RA in 1863. In 1885 he became first English artist to be made a Baronet. Elected PRA in 1896, but died a few months later. Although his late work is regarded by most critics as inferior to his great Pre-Raphaelite pictures, perhaps Ruskin’s judgment was more just… “whether he is good one year, or bad, he is always the most powerful of them all”. Exhibitions of his work were held at the RA in 1898 and 1967. After his death three sales were held at Christie’s, of his own work, and engravings after them, and his private collection, on 1 May 1987, 21 March 1898 and 2 July 1898.”



(Biographical source: Wood, Christopher. The Dictionary of Victorian Painters.)

Sixty Years Ago
The Huguenot